22 February 2006 Spatially resolved pharmacokinetic rate images of ICG using near-infrared optical methods
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In this work, we present spatially resolved pharmacokinetic rate images of indocyanine green (ICG) obtained from three breast cancer patients using near infrared imaging methods. We used a two-compartment model, namely, plasma and extracellular extravascular (EES), to model ICG kinetics around the tumor region. We introduced extended Kalman filtering (EKF) framework to estimate the ICG pharmacokinetic rate images. The EKF framework allows simultaneous estimation of pharmacokinetic rates and the ICG concentrations in each compartment. Based on the pharmacokinetic rate images, we observed that the rates from inside and outside the tumor region are statistically different with a p-value of 0.0001 for each patient. Additionally, we observed that the ICG concentrations in plasma and the EES compartments are higher around the tumors agreeing with the hypothesis that ICG may act as a diffusible extravascular flow in leaky capillary of cancer vessels. Our study shows that spatially resolved pharmacokinetic rate images can be potentially useful for breast cancer screening and diagnosis.
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Burak Alacam, Burak Alacam, Birsen Yazici, Birsen Yazici, Xavier Intes, Xavier Intes, Shoko Nioka, Shoko Nioka, Britton Chance, Britton Chance, } "Spatially resolved pharmacokinetic rate images of ICG using near-infrared optical methods", Proc. SPIE 6088, Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues IV, 60881N (22 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.647205; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.647205

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