A dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope has been developed that utilizes a narrowband source at 1310 nm to achieve high axial resolution, image contrast, field of view, and tissue penetration for distinguishing among normal, hyperplastic, and dysplastic colonic mucosa ex vivo. Light is collected off-axis using a low numerical aperture objective to obtain vertical image sections, with 4 to 5-μm resolution, at tissue depths up to 610 μm. Post-objective scanning enables a large field of view (610 x 640 μm) and balanced-heterodyne detection provides sensitivity to collect vertical sections at two frames per second. System optics are optimized to effectively reject out-of-focus scattered light without use of a low-coherence gate. This design is scalable to millimeter dimensions, and the results demonstrate the potential for a miniature instrument to detect pre-cancerous tissues, and hence to perform in vivo histopathology.