22 February 2006 Frequency domain fluorescent diffuse tomography of small animals with DsRed2-expressed tumors
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The main applications of fluorescent proteins (FPs) are monitoring tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastases formation and effects of new classes of drugs. Different types of tomography allow fluorescence imaging of tumors located deep in human or animal tissue. These techniques were used for investigation of the distribution of near-infrared fluorescent probes, but only a few works are devoted to fluorescence tomography in visible light. In this work, preliminary results of the frequency domain fluorescent diffuse tomography (FD FDT) method in application to DsRed2 protein as a fluorescent agent are presented. For the first step of our experiments we utilized second harmonic generation of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) modulated by low frequency (1 kHz) in the experimental setup. The transilluminative planar configuration was used in the setup. A series of model experiments has been conducted and show good agreement between theoretical and experimental fluorescence intensity. Post mortem experiments with capsules containing DsRed2 and scattering solution introduced into esophagus of rats to simulate tumor formation have been conducted. The results of these experiments show that sensitivity of the setup is sufficient to detect DsRed2 in concentrations similar to those in FP-expressed tumor, but the contrast is not enough high to separate fluorescence of DsRed2 and surrounding tissues. The setup can be significantly improved by utilizing high-frequency modulation (110 MHz using acousto-optical modulator) of the excitation light and precise phase measurements due to difference in fluorescence life-time of FPs and surrounding tissues. An algorithm of processing a fluorescent image based on calculating zero of maximum curvature was employed for detection of fluorescent inclusions boundaries in the image.
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Ilya V. Turchin, Alexander P. Savitsky, Vladislav A. Kamensky, Vladimir I. Plehanov, Anna G. Orlova, Ekaterina A. Sergeeva, Mikhail S. Kleshnin, Marina V. Shirmanova, "Frequency domain fluorescent diffuse tomography of small animals with DsRed2-expressed tumors", Proc. SPIE 6098, Genetically Engineered Probes for Biomedical Applications, 60980C (22 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.644565; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.644565

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