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28 February 2006 Longitudinal photonic bandgap crystal laser diodes with ultra-narrow vertical beam divergence
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Abstract
We report on lasers and light emitting diodes based on the longitudinal photonic bandgap crystal (PBC) concept. The PBC design allows achieving a robust and controllable extension of the fundamental mode over a thick multi-layer waveguide region to obtain a very large vertical optical mode spot size and a very narrow vertical beam divergence. An efficient suppression of high order modes can be realized either by the optical confinement factor selection of the fundamental mode, which is localized at the "optical defect" region and has a higher overlap with the gain region. All the other modes spread across the thicker PBC waveguide. In another approach leakage loss selection can be used to suppress excited modes in case of absorbing substrate or the substrate with a higher-refractive index. In this paper we concentrate on growth and performance of high power single mode visible (650 nm) GaInP/AlGaInP PBC lasers, giving a comprehensive example. The devices show narrow far field pattern (full width at half maximum of vertical beam divergence of about 7°), which is stable up to the highest output powers. Differential efficiency up to 85% is demonstrated. Total continuous wave single mode output power as high as 120 mW is achieved in 4 micrometer-wide stripes. Infrared (980 nm) InGaAs/AlGaAs PBC lasers with a beam divergence down to 4.2 degrees and a high temperature stability of the threshold current are also demonstrated.
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M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, I. I. Novikov, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. Ya. Karachinsky, N. Yu. Gordeev, I. P. Soshnikov, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. Sharon, U. Ben-Ami, V. P. Kalosha, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, T. Kettler, K. Posilovic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg "Longitudinal photonic bandgap crystal laser diodes with ultra-narrow vertical beam divergence", Proc. SPIE 6115, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XIV, 611513 (28 February 2006); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.661389
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