24 February 2006 Polymer photonic integrated circuits by DUV-induced modification
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Abstract
Polymer optical waveguide devices will play a key role in several rapidly developing areas such as optical networks, biophotonic and fluidic applications. We have developed a technology which enables the increase of the refractive index of methylmethacrylate based polymers by deep ultra violet (DUV) radiation. The modification of the dielectric properties of polymers by DUV is a useful technique for the realization of photonic integrated optical circuits. The technique presented here has several advantages with respect to common methods because only a single polymer layer is used, which serves as the substrate and waveguide as well and no further etching or development step is required. This method can not only be applied to planar polymer substrates but also to preembossed substrates. This enables the fabrication of ridge waveguide based devices by hot embossing. Nickel stampers with feature heights of about 15-20 μm and aspect ratios usually between 2:1 and 3:1 can be utilized for replication without major effort. Nickel stampers are not only used to replicate optical waveguides, but are also used to realize fluidic channels in the range of several microns. UV modification of methylmethacrylate polymers additionally leads to a new surface chemistry affecting the selective absorption of proteins and the adhesion of living cells in vitro. The bi-functionality of the modified polymer chips supporting waveguides and cell anchorage capabilities at the same time provides the opportunity to monitor protein adsorption, cell attachment and spreading processes by evanescent-field techniques.
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Dominik G. Rabus, Dominik G. Rabus, Patric Henzi, Patric Henzi, Mathias Bruendel, Mathias Bruendel, Herbert Hein, Herbert Hein, Yasuhisa Ichihashi, Yasuhisa Ichihashi, Tilmann Rogge, Tilmann Rogge, Alexander Welle, Alexander Welle, } "Polymer photonic integrated circuits by DUV-induced modification", Proc. SPIE 6123, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies X, 61230I (24 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.644079; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.644079
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