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10 February 2006 High volume production of single-mode VCSELs
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Up to now applications for singlemode VCSELs were in low volume and high prized applications like tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, [1,2]) or optical interferometers. Typical volumes for these applications are in the range of thousands of pcs per year, with pricing levels of several 100 USD/pcs. New applications for singlemode VCSELs in consumer markets require manufacturing in very high volumes and at very low cost. Examples are laser-based optical mouse sensors, optical encoders, and rubidium atomic clocks for GPS systems [3,4]. U-L-M photonics presents manufacturing aspects, device performance and reliability data for these devices. The first part of the paper is dealing with high volume manufacturing of 850 nm singlemode VCSEL chips with very high efficiency and low operation current. Special processing technologies have been developed to achieve yields on 3 inch wafers of more than 90%. Wafer qualification procedures are discussed as well. The second part of the paper covers high volume packaging in TO and SMT type packages where very high packaging yields must be achieved. In the last part of the paper reliability issues are discussed, focused on the very high susceptibility of these devices to electrostatic discharge.
© (2006) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Dieter Wiedenmann, Martin Grabherr, Roland Jäger, and Roger King "High volume production of single-mode VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 6132, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers X, 613202 (10 February 2006);

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