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24 March 2006 Integrated projecting optics tester for inspection of immersion ArF scanner
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Immersion lithography has been intensively developed to print features, such as isolated lines and isolated spaces, which are smaller than 35 nm, with good depth of focus at a vacuum wavelength of 193 nm. Because the wavelength of the light in a liquid is reduced from the vacuum wavelength, the numerical aperture, i.e. the resolution (lambda/2NA) can be improved by a factor of the index of refraction of the liquid. At the end of 2005, Nikon scanner achieved 47nm L and S pattern. In order to utilize daily this performance of the immersion lithography apparatus with well-defined resolution enhancement technique in factory to its maximum content, optical parameters such as lens aberration, illuminator NA, pupil-fill annular ratio, and polarization status are to be measured and controlled more accurately than ever. To meet that need, an integrated projecting optics tester (iPot) for an in-situ inspection of wavefront aberration with calibration method to achieve high accurate measurement has been developed. The performance meets the required 47nm L&S pattern while the numerical aperture of immersion projection lens is larger than 1. The deviation between the averaged absolute value of the Zernike coefficient was 0.0022 lambda (0.42 nm). The deviation of the averaged absolute value of the coefficient in the scanned field is 0.0010 lambda (0.19 nm). Measured ratio of specific polarization (RSP) values of H and V polarized illuminated sections are 0.974 and 0.973, respectively. Projection lens with the low birefringence designed value is consistent with the measured value of RSP and the wavefront illuminated by linear polarizing light.
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Toru Fujii, Kosuke Suzuki, Yasushi Mizuno, and Naonori Kita "Integrated projecting optics tester for inspection of immersion ArF scanner", Proc. SPIE 6152, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XX, 615237 (24 March 2006);

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