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24 March 2006 Marching to the beat of Moore's Law
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Area density scaling in integrated circuits, defined as transistor count per unit area, has followed the famous observation-cum-prediction by Gordon Moore for many generations. Known as "Moore's Law" which predicts density doubling every 18-24 month, it has provided all important synchronizing guidance and reference for tools and materials suppliers, IC manufacturers and their customers as to what minimal requirements their products and services need to meet to satisfy technical and financial expectations in support of the infrastructure required for the development and manufacturing of corresponding technology generation nodes. Multiple lithography solutions are usually under considerations for any given node. In general, three broad classes of solutions are considered: evolutionary - technology that is extension of existing technology infrastructure at similar or slightly higher cost and risk to schedule; revolutionary - technology that discards significant parts of the existing infrastructure at similar cost, higher risk to schedule but promises higher capability as compared to the evolutionary approach; and last but not least, disruptive - approach that as a rule promises similar or better capabilities, much lower cost and wholly unpredictable risk to schedule and products yields. This paper examines various lithography approaches, their respective merits against criteria of respective infrastructure availability, affordability and risk to IC manufacturer's schedules and strategy involved in developing and selecting best solution in an attempt to sort out key factors that will impact the decision on the lithography choice for large-scale manufacturing for the future technology nodes.
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Yan Borodovsky "Marching to the beat of Moore's Law", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 615301 (24 March 2006);

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