11 April 2006 Materials and process parameters on ArF immersion defectivity study
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The immersionspecific watermark defect is discussed in its formation mechanism and in the influence of materials and exposure process. The non-topcoat approach was the basis of the work, where the properties of resist surface itself played the key role. Water droplets left on the resist surface were considered to induce the watermark defect in two possible ways; (1) the droplet is carried over to PEB process and impact the resist properties under the heat, (2) the droplet already evaporates before the PEB leaving some residue on the surface. A notable reduction in the resist dissolution rate was observed in the former case, which could be due to either physical or chemical change in the resist materials triggered by the water, and thereby would result in an unavoidable patterning failure. Therefore it is essential not to leave any water droplets on the surface in preventing the watermark formation. A very much hydrophobic materials design was proven effective in achieving this. The watermark formation was correlated to the scanning speed of immersion showerhead and the defectivity was evaluated in this perspective. The receding contact angle of the resist surface was found to well correlate to the "allowable" scanning speed, and was concluded that the higher was the better. A resist material was newly designed by using a hydrophobic polymer on this basis and the resist demonstrated a promising results not only in the watermark defectivity but also in lithographic performance.
© (2006) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Shinichi Kanna, Shinichi Kanna, Haruki Inabe, Haruki Inabe, Kei Yamamoto, Kei Yamamoto, Toshiaki Fukuhara, Toshiaki Fukuhara, Shinji Tarutani, Shinji Tarutani, Hiromi Kanda, Hiromi Kanda, Wada Kenji, Wada Kenji, Kunihiko Kodama, Kunihiko Kodama, Koji Shitabatake, Koji Shitabatake, "Materials and process parameters on ArF immersion defectivity study", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 615308 (11 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.657805; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.657805

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