11 April 2006 High-refractive-index fluids for the next-generation ArF immersion lithography
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ArF immersion lithography using a high-refractive-index fluid (HIF) is considered to be a promising candidate for the 32nm node or below. At SPIE 2005 we introduced a new immersion fluid, JSR HIL-1, which has a refractive index and transmittance of 1.64 and >98%/mm (193.4nm, 23 oC), respectively. With HIL-1 immersion and a two beam interferometric exposure tool, hp32nm L/S imaging has been demonstrated. In this paper, we will report another novel immersion fluid, HIL-2, which has a transmittance of >99%/mm, which is almost as high as that of water, and a refractive index of 1.65 (193.4nm, 23 oC). Furthermore, an ArF laser irradiation study has shown that the degree of photodecomposition for both HIL-1 and HIL-2 is small enough for immersion lithography application. A "fluid puddle" defect study confirmed that HILs have less tendency to form immersion-specific photoresist defects and the refractive indices of HILs were found constant under laser irradiation. Batch-to-batch variation in refractive index during manufacture of HILs was not observed. By refining prism designs, hp30nm L/S patterns have also been successfully imaged with two interferometric exposure tools and HIL immersion.
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Yong Wang, Takashi Miyamatsu, Taiichi Furukawa, Kinji Yamada, Tetsuo Tominaga, Yutaka Makita, Hiroki Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamura, Motoyuki Shima, Shiro Kusumoto, Tsutomu Shimokawa, Katsuhiko Hieda, "High-refractive-index fluids for the next-generation ArF immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 61530A (11 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.656022; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.656022

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