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29 March 2006 Difference between initial distributions of proton and counter anion in chemically amplified electron-beam resist
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Abstract
Nanoscale resist topography such as line edge roughness (LER) or line width roughness (LWR) is the most serious concern in sub-100 nm fabrication. Although many factors have been reported to affect LER, the generation mechanism of LER is still unclear. It is well known that the slope of image contrast correlates to the degree of roughness. However, significant LER is sill observed in chemically amplified resists for electron beam (EB) lithography, which can produce a steeper slope of image contrast than photolithography. To make clear a cause of LER, the distribution of protons and counter anions generated in chemically amplified EB resists was investigated. It was found that counter anion distribution is significantly different from proton distribution. Counter anions are inhomogeneously distributed outside a relatively smooth edge of proton distribution. This is caused by the fact that acid generators can react with low energy (~ 0 eV) electrons. The inhomodeneous distribution of counter anions outside proton distribution is considered to contribute to LER formation in chemically amplified resists for EB lithography.
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Takahiro Kozawa, Hiroki Yamamoto, Akinori Saeki, and Seiichi Tagawa "Difference between initial distributions of proton and counter anion in chemically amplified electron-beam resist", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 615314 (29 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.656869; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.656869
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