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29 March 2006 Development of fluoropolymer for 193nm immersion lithography
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We had already developed several series of fluoropolymers, FPRs and FUGUs, having a partially fluorinated monocyclic structure and having acidic hydroxyl group, which acts as dissolution unit into alkaline solution. Then we have optimized these polymers for top-coat as the developer-soluble type in the 193nm immersion lithography. However the hydrophobicity of these polymers were a little poor due to its hydroxyl group. So we thought that the introduction of water repellent moiety into the these polymers structure is effective to improve the their hydrophobicity though the increase of water repellent unit in the polymer leads to lower dissolution rate in developer. To introduce as much as possible of hydrophobicity unit, we selected FUGU as platform, which has larger dissolution rate in developer than that of FPRs, We copolymerized FUGU with higher water-repellent component and obtained three copolymers, FUGU-CoA, FUGU-CoB, and FUGU-CoC. In this paper, we described characteristics and evaluation of these polymers. Most of these polymer showed an improvement of hydrophobicity, in particular FUGU-CoB had excellent hydrophobicity due to introduction bulky containing-fluorine group. In this study, we also investigated the interaction between the water and various polymers by using QCM method. The difference between FUGU and water repellent polymers for swelling behavior to water became clear by analysis of diffusion coefficient. We found that our new co-polymers have excellent diffusion coefficient than FUGU which was confirmed by QCM method used to evaluate water permeability and water diffusion in the materials.
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Naoko Shirota, Yoko Takebe, Takashi Sasaki, Osamu Yokokoji, Minoru Toriumi, and Hiroshi Masuhara "Development of fluoropolymer for 193nm immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 615324 (29 March 2006);

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