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29 March 2006 Formulated surface conditioners to enhance the non-collapse window and maintain defect control: a bi-functional approach for sub-100-nm lithography
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Abstract
One key challenge in sub-100 nm lithography is line pattern collapse. Pattern collapse has become an obstacle in device manufacturing processes requiring dense-high aspect ratio resist lines. In addition to pattern collapse, defect control continues to be a factor in IC manufacturing. In this study, the impact of a formulated surface conditioner, OptiPatten® Clear, with bifunctional capabilities: improved non-collapse window and defect control, was tested using a 193 nm lithographic process. To determine pattern collapse performance, 100 nm dense lines/space (L/S) and 100 nm 1:0.9 L/S were patterned into 240 nm of resist on 200 mm wafers. The wafers were then processed with developer and a formulated surface conditioner and compared to wafers processed with developer and DI water. When analyzed, wafers processed with surface conditioner had a 33% increase in Depth-of-Focus (DOF) and a 25% increase in Critical Normalized Aspect Ratio (CNAR) compared to DI water. Optical proximity effects are often credited for having a first-order influence on pattern collapse. Trench feature data was generated using an Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to compare the pattern collapse performance of OptiPattern Clear to DI water. The data strongly suggests optical proximity effects are a second-order factor which OptiPattern® Clear resolves. Defect performance for OptiPattern Clear was measured by comparison with a DI water baseline. A production reticle was used to process wafers patterned with 120 nm L/S with 240 nm of resist. The wafers processed with OptiPattern® Clear had similar defect performance as the DI water.
© (2006) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Masakazu Sanada, Minoru Sugiyama, Manuel Jaramillo Jr., Peng Zhang, and Shawn Cassel "Formulated surface conditioners to enhance the non-collapse window and maintain defect control: a bi-functional approach for sub-100-nm lithography", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 615331 (29 March 2006); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.656661
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