29 March 2006 Correlation between polymer platform of ArF photoresist and defect in the track nozzle of manufacturing process line
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As the minimum feature size of electronic devices continues to shrink, the industry is moving from wavelength of 248-nm KrF excimer laser sources to shorter wavelength of 193-nrn ArF excimer laser and ArF immersion to achieve required higher resolution. As minimum feature sizes are reduced, the ability to minimize defects is getting more important, because they have a close connection with yield. With the replacement of laser source, 248-nm with 193-nm, the platform of polymer was also converted from phenolic polymer into acrylic polymer. With this platform changes unexpected various defect problems had been occurred. Although KrF process causes not much of defect, ArF process causes more serious defect problems. One of those major defect source is solidification of polymer in track nozzle. The solidified polymer at track nozzle needs to be removed periodically, unless it causes significant throughput loss in mass production. The amount of this type of defect relies on physical properties of polymer platform such as hydrophilicity, solubility or structural rigidity. The hydrophilic phenol based KrF polymer shows minor defects, contrarily hydrophobic acryl based ArF polymer causes serious defects. The solidification of acrylate type polymer was caused by poor solubility. In order to improve solubility, olefinic moieties such as norbornylene, norbornyl devertives and opened maleic anhydride monomers were adopted in acrylate polymer. Those inserted olefins and opened maleic anhydride in acrylic polymer changed overall structure such as rigid helix structure into flexible structure. With the increase of solubility, particle defect was dramatically reduced. Conclusively, insertion of cycloolefin and opened maleic anhydride moiety releases rigid acrylic structure and it improves solubility. As solubility improves, crystallization at nozzle has been decreased and the particle defect is reduced. Moreover this flexible structure allows the resist reflow at the moderate temperature which is one of the resolution enhancement techniques.
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Ji Young Song, Ji Young Song, Dong Chul Seo, Dong Chul Seo, Seung Duk Cho, Seung Duk Cho, Hyun Sang Joo, Hyun Sang Joo, Kyoung Mun Kim, Kyoung Mun Kim, Hyun Soon Lim, Hyun Soon Lim, Sang Jin Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Joo Hyeon Park, Joo Hyeon Park, Jae Chang Jung, Jae Chang Jung, Sung Koo Lee, Sung Koo Lee, Chul Kyu Bok, Chul Kyu Bok, Seung Chan Moon, Seung Chan Moon, } "Correlation between polymer platform of ArF photoresist and defect in the track nozzle of manufacturing process line", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 61533G (29 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.657072; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.657072

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