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29 March 2006 193nm immersion process defect generation and reduction mechanism investigation using analytical methods
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Utilizing de-ionized water as the medium between the wafer and lens of the exposure system and realizing high numerical aperture (NA), 193-nm immersion lithography is being developed at a great pace towards practical application. Recent improvements in materials, processing and exposure systems have dramatically reduced the defectivity levels in immersion processing. However, in order to completely eradicate immersion related defects and achieve defectivity levels required for ideal productivity, further investigation into the defect generation mechanism and full understanding of the improvements garnered so far is required. It is known that leaching of resist component materials during exposure and penetration of remaining water from the immersion scanning process are two key contributors towards immersion related defects. Additionally, the necessity to increase the hydrophobicity of the resist materials has had a signification effect on remaining resist residues. In order to more fully understand the generation of defects from the these contributions, it is necessary not only to analyze properties of the defects, but also investigate the change in composition originating from advanced processing techniques that have shown improvements in defectivity performance.
© (2006) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Masashi Enomoto, Shinichi Hatakeyama, Takafumi Niwa, Tadatoshi Tomita, Hideharu Kyoda, Junichi Kitano, Satoru Shimura, and Tetsu Kawasaki "193nm immersion process defect generation and reduction mechanism investigation using analytical methods", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 61533L (29 March 2006);

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