11 April 2006 Development of EUV resists in homogenous CO2 solutions using CO2 compatible salts (CCS): a kinetic view of dissolution of conventional resists in supercritical CO2
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Abstract
A novel method for the development of standard EUV photoresists in CO2 using CO2 compatible salts (CCS) is described and examined using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique in CO2. The fundamental steps of this development process are proposed to be 1) photoresist modification via CCS interaction with Bronsted acid groups in the resist; and 2) dissolution of the modified resist into CO2. Removal rates of non-exposed photoresist from the quartz crystal can be studied in real time under a variety of conditions to help elucidate the kinetics and mechanism of the CCS development process. A series of runs from 35 to 50 C at the same CO2 density showed a strong effect of temperature on the development rate. In the presence of a large excess of CCS, the kinetics of dissolution appear to be zero order. An Arrhenius plot generated by this data gave an activation energy of 79.0 kJ/mol. The zero order kinetics of dissolution was confirmed with a series of runs at various CCS concentration that showed insignificant rate effects. Dynamic flow of the CCS solution in the QCM cell gave ~50% increase in rate of resist removal relative to the standard conditions using static CCS solution. The indication from the three sets of QCM experiments described here is that dissolution of the CCS modified polymer is the slow step in CCS development.
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James DeYoung, James DeYoung, Mark Wagner, Mark Wagner, Chris Harbinson, Chris Harbinson, Merrick Miles, Merrick Miles, Amy Zweber, Amy Zweber, Ruben Carbonell, Ruben Carbonell, } "Development of EUV resists in homogenous CO2 solutions using CO2 compatible salts (CCS): a kinetic view of dissolution of conventional resists in supercritical CO2", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 615345 (11 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.655881; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.655881
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