15 March 2006 Optimization of chromeless phase mask by comparing scattering bars with zebra patterns
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Abstract
Resolution enhancement technology (RET) refer to techniques that extend the usable resolution of an imaging system without decreasing the wavelength of light or increasing the numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging tool. Off-axis illumination (OAI) and phase shift mask (PSM) are essentially accompanied with optical proximity correction (OPC) for most devices nowadays. In general, these three techniques do not work in isolation and the most aggressive mainstream lithography approaches use combinations of all RETs. In fact, OAI and PSM are essentially useless for typical chip-manufacturing applications unless accompanied by OPC. For low k1 imaging, strong OAI such as Quasar or dipole illumination types is the best. We used dipole illumination in this study. By using strong OAI, the amplitude of the 0th order is decreased and the amplitude of the 1st order is increased. Chromeless phase lithography (CPL) is one of PSM technologies and CPL mask is the possible solution for small geometry with low mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). CPL uses only 180 degrees phase-shifter on transparent glass without chromium film to define light-shielding region, destructive interference between light transmitted through the 0 degree and 180 degrees regions produces dark images. To obtain the best resolution, proper OPC is required with CPL. While the most common and straightforward application of OPC is to simply move absorber edges on the mask by giving simple mask bias, the interesting and important additional technique is the use of scattering bars. Also, we can use zebra patterns for the transmission control. Mask intensity transmission changes can impact the image quality. Zebra patterns are formed by adding chromium transverse features. The transmission will be controlled by the zebra pattern density. Technology node with ArF source is studied and the mask optimization is found to be a critical. And the linewidth of scattering bars, transmission (using zebra feature) are varied at line and space (L/S) patterns. We used 65 nm node 5 L/S and 45 nm node isolated line pattern. In order to optimize the zebra pattern density, we need to control the line width and pitch of the zebra patterns. For dense line and isolated line, the use of scattering bars and zebra patterns affected target critical dimension. We found out the better process window at dense 65 nm node by comparing the use of scattering bars with zebra patterns. Likewise, we optimized the isolated 45 nm node.
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Hye-Young Kang, Hye-Young Kang, Ji-Eun Lee, Ji-Eun Lee, Eun-A Kwak, Eun-A Kwak, Eun-Jin Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Seung-Wook Park, Seung-Wook Park, Sung-Hyuck Kim, Sung-Hyuck Kim, Dong-Soo Shin, Dong-Soo Shin, HeeJun Jeong, HeeJun Jeong, Hye-Keun Oh, Hye-Keun Oh, } "Optimization of chromeless phase mask by comparing scattering bars with zebra patterns", Proc. SPIE 6154, Optical Microlithography XIX, 615429 (15 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.656145; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.656145
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