21 March 2006 Determination of complex index of immersion liquids at 193 nm
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The next nodes in immersion lithography will require the scanners to use the 193 nm ArF* laser line with a very large numerical aperture and a liquid between the optics and the resist. (1) Immersion lithography at 193 nm requests very specific parameters for the fluid. The first generation is using the deionized Water (DIW) very pure and not recycled, but when a new optical material for the last lens will be available with a refractive index (RI) larger than 1.85, a higher refractive index fluid could be used, enabling second and maybe third generation of immersion lithography at 193 nm. So the 45 and maybe the 32 nm nodes could be covered with this high Index fluids (HIF).
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Jean-Louis Stehle, Jean-Louis Stehle, Jean-Philippe Piel, Jean-Philippe Piel, Jose Campillo-Carreto, Jose Campillo-Carreto, "Determination of complex index of immersion liquids at 193 nm", Proc. SPIE 6154, Optical Microlithography XIX, 61544G (21 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.657537; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.657537

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