21 March 2006 Three-dimensional imaging of 30-nm nanospheres using immersion interferometric lithography
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Immersion interferometric lithography has been applied successfully to semiconductor device applications, but its potential is not limited to this application only. This paper explores this imaging technology for the production of three-dimensional nano-structures using a 193 nm excimer laser and immersion Talbot interferometric lithographic tool. The fabrication of 3-D photonic crystals for the UV spectrum is still considered to be a challenge. A systematic analysis of immersion lithography for 3-D photonic crystal fabrication will be provided in this paper. Significant progress has been made on optical immersion lithography since it was first proposed. Two-beam immersion interferometric lithography can provide sub-30nm resolution. By changing the exposure parameters, such as the numerical aperture of the exposure system, the polarization states and wavelength of the illumination source, 30 nm polymeric nanospheres with different crystal structures can be fabricated.
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Jianming Zhou, Jianming Zhou, Yongfa Fan, Yongfa Fan, Bruce W. Smith, Bruce W. Smith, } "Three-dimensional imaging of 30-nm nanospheres using immersion interferometric lithography", Proc. SPIE 6154, Optical Microlithography XIX, 61544M (21 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.656544; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.656544

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