15 March 2006 Crack detection in a wheel end spindle using wave propagation via modal impacts and piezo actuation
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Abstract
This research demonstrates two methodologies for detecting cracks in a metal spindle housed deep within a vehicle wheel end assembly. First, modal impacts are imposed on the hub of the wheel in the longitudinal direction to produce broadband elastic wave excitation spectra out to 7000 Hz. The response data on the flange is collected using 3000 Hz bandwidth accelerometers. It is shown using frequency response analysis that the crack produces a filter, which amplifies the elastic response of the surrounding components of the wheel assembly. Experiments on wheel assemblies mounted on the vehicle with the vehicle lifted off the ground are performed to demonstrate that the modal impact method can be used to nondestructively evaluate cracks of varying depths despite sources of variability such as the half shaft angular position relative to the non-rotating spindle. Second, an automatic piezo-stack actuator is utilized to excite the wheel hub with a swept sine signal extending from 20 kHz. Accelerometers are then utilized to measure the response on the flange. It is demonstrated using frequency response analysis that the crack filters waves traveling from the hub to the flange. A simple finite element model is used to interpret the experimental results. Challenges discussed include variability from assembly to assembly, the variability in each assembly, and the high amount of damping present in each assembly due to the transmission gearing, lubricant, and other components in the wheel end. A two-channel measurement system with a graphical user interface for detecting cracks was also developed and a procedure was created to ensure that operators properly perform the test.
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Spencer Ackers, Spencer Ackers, Ronald Evans, Ronald Evans, Timothy Johnson, Timothy Johnson, Harold Kess, Harold Kess, Jonathan White, Jonathan White, Douglas E. Adams, Douglas E. Adams, Pam Brown, Pam Brown, } "Crack detection in a wheel end spindle using wave propagation via modal impacts and piezo actuation", Proc. SPIE 6177, Health Monitoring and Smart Nondestructive Evaluation of Structural and Biological Systems V, 61770B (15 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.661570; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.661570
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