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20 April 2006 Diffraction gratings written inside/on lithium niobate by means of femtosecond laser pulses
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This work deals on the fabrication process of diffraction gratings made on Lithium Niobate substrates by means of focusing femtosecond laser pulses. The main optical features of these photonic structures are presented in this paper. As it was expected the relief gratings showed high diffraction efficiency in accordance to the index modulated profile of the crystal-air border resulting in this kind of diffractive structure. On the other hand, for the inside grating a higher diffraction efficiency for the first orders were found, however the overall diffraction efficiency was found to be similar to that obtained for the ablation structures made in this work; this result suggests that the index increment in the inside grooves should be very important. The thermal stability of these structures is also studied and discussed in this paper. It is found that for the relief gratings the diffraction efficiency is temperature independent up to 400°C degrees, while for the inside gratings a slight decrease on diffraction efficiency was observed after making a thermal annealing at 400°C during two hours. The grating fabrication method presented in this work can be a powerful tool for development of several photonic devices made inside/on Lithium Niobate by using femtosecond laser writing by means of the one step process.
© (2006) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
G. A. Torchia, C. Méndez, D. Delgado, J. R. A. Vázquez, I. Arias, and L. Roso "Diffraction gratings written inside/on lithium niobate by means of femtosecond laser pulses", Proc. SPIE 6183, Integrated Optics, Silicon Photonics, and Photonic Integrated Circuits, 618320 (20 April 2006);

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