21 April 2006 Roughness measurements on coupling structures for optical interconnections integrated on a printed circuit board
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Abstract
In this paper, laser ablation (at UGent), deep proton writing (at VUB) and laser direct writing (at HWU) are presented as versatile technologies that can be used for the fabrication of coupling structures for optical interconnections integrated on a printed circuit board (PCB). The optical layer, a highly cross-linked acrylate based polymer, is applied on an FR4 substrate. Both laser ablation and laser direct writing are used for the definition of arrays of multimode optical waveguides, which guide the light in the plane of the optical layer. In order to couple light vertically in/out of the plane of the optical waveguides, coupling structures have to be integrated into the optical layer. Out-of-plane turning mirrors, that deflect the light beam over 90°, are used for this purpose. The surface roughness and angle of three mirror configurations are evaluated: a laser ablated one that is integrated into the optical waveguide, a laser direct written one that is also directly written onto the waveguide and a DPW insert that is plugged into a cavity into the waveguiding layer.
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Nina Hendrickx, Jürgen Van Erps, Himanshu Suyal, Mohammad Taghizadeh, Hugo Thienpont, Peter Van Daele, "Roughness measurements on coupling structures for optical interconnections integrated on a printed circuit board", Proc. SPIE 6185, Micro-Optics, VCSELs, and Photonic Interconnects II: Fabrication, Packaging, and Integration, 61851E (21 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.665387; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.665387
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