8 May 2006 Geometrical optics analysis of clear-air refractive-index perturbations on SAR images
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Previous papers have demonstrated that anomalies observed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images can be attributed to perturbations in the clear-air refractive index. The atmospheric effect is small, and is more frequent, or apparent, in long range imaging. A geometrical optics (ray-trace) analysis is applied to potential atmospheric perturbations. The results correlate with observations, and demonstrate that the effect is strongly dependent on the azimuth orientation of the atmospheric perturbation. The analysis also demonstrates that the magnitudes of the spatial size of the anomalies and index perturbations can be much smaller than expected.
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Richard N. Shagam, Fred M. Dickey, Armin W. Doerry, "Geometrical optics analysis of clear-air refractive-index perturbations on SAR images", Proc. SPIE 6210, Radar Sensor Technology X, 621003 (8 May 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.668326; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.668326

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