16 May 2006 Remote detection of buried mines
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Illumination and polarization enhancement at optical wavelengths due to photometric backscattering by particulate surfaces can potentially be exploited for identifying soils disturbed by the burial of landmines, traversed by vehicles, and possibly for identifying environments prone to dust hazards. Laboratory and field measurements of reflected visible and near infrared light at phase angles from 3° to 0° demonstrate observations at these low angles are sensitive to grain size and packing for surfaces composed of particles as small as a few microns. Finer-grained materials tend to increase in reflectance more than do larger-grained surfaces and do so over a smaller range of phase angles, with a maximum brightness at or near 0° phase. Particulate surfaces also linearly polarize light; though the relationship is more complex, with high-albedo materials exhibiting a negative polarization of a few percent at one or few degrees phase. There is no intrinsic compositional dependency, and related albedo variations may be constrained using multiple wavelengths.
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Charles A. Hibbitts, Charles A. Hibbitts, James Bauer, James Bauer, } "Remote detection of buried mines", Proc. SPIE 6217, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets XI, 62170B (16 May 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.664986; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.664986

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