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12 May 2006 An adaptive localization system for outdoor/indoor navigation for autonomous robots
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Many envisioned applications of mobile robotic systems require the robot to navigate in complex urban environments. This need is particularly critical if the robot is to perform as part of a synergistic team with human forces in military operations. Historically, the development of autonomous navigation for mobile robots has targeted either outdoor or indoor scenarios, but not both, which is not how humans operate. This paper describes efforts to fuse component technologies into a complete navigation system, allowing a robot to seamlessly transition between outdoor and indoor environments. Under the Joint Robotics Program's Technology Transfer project, empirical evaluations of various localization approaches were conducted to assess their maturity levels and performance metrics in different exterior/interior settings. The methodologies compared include Markov localization, global positioning system, Kalman filtering, and fuzzy-logic. Characterization of these technologies highlighted their best features, which were then fused into an adaptive solution. A description of the final integrated system is discussed, including a presentation of the design, experimental results, and a formal demonstration to attendees of the Unmanned Systems Capabilities Conference II in San Diego in December 2005.
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E. B. Pacis, B. Sights, G. Ahuja, G. Kogut, and H. R. Everett "An adaptive localization system for outdoor/indoor navigation for autonomous robots", Proc. SPIE 6230, Unmanned Systems Technology VIII, 623022 (12 May 2006);

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