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18 May 2006 Development of photonic devices for MMW sensing and imaging
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In this paper we present several novel photonic technologies for sensing millimeter-wave (MMW) radiation for the imaging and spectroscopy applications. Based on the optical up-conversion approach, our high-sensitivity MMW imaging system transfers the power of MMW radiation received from a broadband horn antenna to the sidebands on an optical carrier via an electrooptic (EO) modulator. The detection is realized by measuring the transferred optical power of the sidebands. The sensitivity of this detection system is primarily controlled by the conversion efficiency of the EO modulator at the desired MMW frequency. In this paper, we present the design, fabrication, and characteristics of the ultra-broadband LiNbO3 traveling-wave modulator for the MMW detection system working at a frequency of 95 GHz. A numerical model based on the finite element analysis technique has developed to optimize the device geometric parameters and the fabrication processes. A modulation efficiency of ~0.9 W-1 at 95 GHz has been achieved for the optimized modulator, which corresponds to the half-wave voltages of 9 V and 18 V, at DC and 95 GHz, respectively. The detection pixel based on those modulators has shown a high sensibility with a noise equivalent temperature difference of ~17K at a refreshing rate of 30 Hz.
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C. J. Huang, Christopher Schuetz, Rownak Shireen, Timothy Hwang, Shouyuan Shi, and Dennis W. Prather "Development of photonic devices for MMW sensing and imaging", Proc. SPIE 6232, Intelligent Integrated Microsystems, 62320Q (18 May 2006);

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