4 May 2006 Reflectance spectra of three liquid hydrocarbons on a common sand type
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Three liquid hydrocarbons of different volatilities were incrementally applied to a quartz sand substrate. These liquids were gasoline, diesel fuel, and motor oil. The reflectance spectra of the hydrocarbon-sand samples varied directly with the amount (weight) of liquid on the sand. Liquid-saturated sand samples were then left to age in ambient, outdoor, environmental conditions. At regular intervals, the samples were re-measured for the residual liquid and the associated change in sample reflectance. The results outlined temporal windows of opportunity for detecting these products on the sand substrate. The windows ranged from less than 24-hours to more than a week, depending on liquid volatility. Each hydrocarbon darkened the sand and produced hydrocarbon absorption features near 1.70 and 2.31 μm and a hydrocarbon plateau at 2.28-2.45 μm. These features were used to differentiate the liquid-sand samples. A normalized difference index metric based on one of these features and a spectral continuum band described the reflectance-weight loss and reflectance-time relations. The normalized difference hydrocarbon index (NDHI) using the 1.60 and 2.31 μm bands best characterized the samples.
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C. Scott Allen, C. Scott Allen, Melvin B. Satterwhite, Melvin B. Satterwhite, } "Reflectance spectra of three liquid hydrocarbons on a common sand type", Proc. SPIE 6233, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XII, 62331M (4 May 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.665586; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.665586


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