This paper presents an experiment carried out in Toulouse in 2004. This campaign aims to create a specific library which will give us simultaneously information in three domains: a list of the main materials present in the city, the optical properties of each of them (spectral and directional) and their spatial variability in a given class. The spectral domain covers the entire optical domain from the visible to the Long Wave InfraRed range. Measurements have been carried out in the visible and near infrared spectral region (400-2500 nm) with an ASD spectroradiometer at a 20 cm resolution for outdoors measurements, and with a goniometer for laboratory ones at the same spatial resolution. A database of about 550 individual spectra has been created. These spectra could be divided into 4 classical urban classes like road (red asphalt, tar), pavement (red asphalt, tar), square (granite slab) and wall (brick, concrete). In addition to these "in situ" experiments, the bi-directional behaviours of urban material samples have been studied in laboratory with the Onera goniometer. Two material types have been distinguished: flat materials, which is isotropic, and textured materials, whose study is more complex. Whereas road and sidewalk materials are quite lambertian with a slight backscattering effect typical of rough surfaces, square materials like granite or concrete present a specular peak at large zenith angle. A specific study on tiles demonstrates their important anisotropic directional properties.
In the infrared domain (3μm - 14μm), a SOC 400 spectroradiometer was used at a 1.27cm spatial resolution. A database of about 100 individual spectra has been created. These spectra could be divided into four classical urban classes like road (red asphalt, tar), pavement (red asphalt, tar), square (granite slab) and wall (bricks, painted walls). In each spectral domain, three variability types are considered: a physical variability which is intrinsic to the material, a contextual variability depending on the material use and a theoretical variability which is the one observed inside a chosen class.