In this paper a robust watermarking technique based on Vector Quantization and the preciously developed spread
spectrum robust watermarking technique is proposed. In this work, the watermark is embedded in both the DCT and
codebook domains. Results illustrate that the proposed technique provides an improvement over the spread spectrum
watermarking technique in terms of robustness for various signal processing attacks. A discussion on the robustness of
the technique against the dead-lock and collusion problems is also provided.