17 April 2006 Authenticity and privacy of a team of mini-UAVs by means of nonlinear recursive shuffling
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We have developed a real-time EOIR video counter-jittering sub-pixel image correction algorithm for a single mini- Unmanned Air Vehicle (m-UAV) for surveillance and communication (Szu et al. SPIE Proc. V 5439 5439, pp.183-197, April 12, 2004). In this paper, we wish to plan and execute the next challenge---- a team of m-UAVs. The minimum unit for a robust chain saw communication must have the connectivity of five second-nearest-neighbor members with a sliding, arbitrary center. The team members require an authenticity check (AC) among a unit of five, in order to carry out a jittering mosaic image processing (JMIP) on-board for every m-UAV without gimbals. The JMIP does not use any NSA security protocol ("cardinal rule: no-man, no-NSA codec"). Besides team flight dynamics (Szu et al "Nanotech applied to aerospace and aeronautics: swarming,' AIAA 2005-6933 Sept 26-29 2005), several new modules: AOA, AAM, DSK, AC, FPGA are designed, and the JMIP must develop their own control, command and communication system, safeguarded by the authenticity and privacy checks presented in this paper. We propose a Nonlinear Invertible (deck of card) Shuffler (NIS) algorithm, which has a Feistel structure similar to the Data Encryption Standard (DES) developed by Feistel et. al. at IBM in the 1970's; but DES is modified here by a set of chaotic dynamical shuffler Key (DSK), as re-computable lookup tables generated by every on-board Chaotic Neural Network (CNN). The initializations of CNN are periodically provided by the private version of RSA from the ground control to team members to avoid any inadvertent failure of broken chain among m-UAVs. Efficient utilization of communication bandwidth is necessary for a constantly moving and jittering m-UAV platform, e.g. the wireless LAN protocol wastes the bandwidth due to a constant need of hand-shaking procedures (as demonstrated by NRL; though sensible for PCs and 3rd gen. mobile phones). Thus, the chaotic DSK must be embedded in a fault-tolerant Neural Network Associative Memory for the error-resilientconcealment mosaic image chip re-sent. However, the RSA public and private keys, chaos typing and initial value are given on set or sent to each m-UAV so that each platform knows only its private key. AC among 5 team members are possible using a reverse RSA protocol. A hashed image chip is coded by the sender's private key and nobody else knows in order to send to it to neighbors and the receiver can check the content by using the senders public key and compared the decrypted result with on-board image chips. We discover a fundamental problem of digital chaos approach in a finite state machine, of which a fallacy test of a discrete version is needed for a finite number of bits, as James Yorke advocated early. Thus, our proposed chaotic NIS for bits stream protection becomes desirable to further mixing the digital CNN outputs. The fault tolerance and the parallelism of Artificial Neural Network Associative Memory are necessary attributes for the neighborhood smoothness image restoration. The associated computational cost of O(N2) deems to be worthy, because the Chaotic version CNN of N-D can further provide the privacy only for the lost image chip (N=8x8) re-sent requested by its neighbors and the result is better performed than a simple 1-D logistic map. We gave a preliminary design of low end of FPGA firmware that to compute all on board seemed to be possible.
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Ming-Kai Hsu, Ming-Kai Hsu, Patrick Baier, Patrick Baier, Ting N. Lee, Ting N. Lee, James R. Buss, James R. Buss, Rabinder N. Madan, Rabinder N. Madan, } "Authenticity and privacy of a team of mini-UAVs by means of nonlinear recursive shuffling", Proc. SPIE 6247, Independent Component Analyses, Wavelets, Unsupervised Smart Sensors, and Neural Networks IV, 62470T (17 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.670659; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.670659

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