28 June 2006 Integrated optic beam combiners in lithium niobate for stellar interferometer
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Integrated optics can provide compact and robust solutions for ground and space-based interferometry by integrating optical devices with different functionalities, such as spatial filters, combiners/nullers, and phase modulators, on a single chip. Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) has two distinct advantages over silica-based technologies, including good transparency further into the near-infrared (covering J, H, K, and L bands) and the ability to support electrically-controlled phase modulation through the linear electro-optic (EO) effect. The design, fabrication and preliminary tests of integrated optic components on LiNbO3 substrates for astronomical beam combiners operating in the H and L bands is reported. The components include single-mode waveguides of sufficient length for spatial filtering, symmetric junctions for wavelength insensitive power splitters/combiners, and electro-optic waveguide modulators for path-length control.
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Guangyu Li, Guangyu Li, Tobias Eckhause, Tobias Eckhause, Kim A. Winick, Kim A. Winick, John D. Monnier, John D. Monnier, Jean-Philippe Berger, Jean-Philippe Berger, } "Integrated optic beam combiners in lithium niobate for stellar interferometer", Proc. SPIE 6268, Advances in Stellar Interferometry, 626834 (28 June 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.671628; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.671628

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