28 June 2006 The first high resolution silicon immersion grating spectrograph
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Abstract
We report the development of the first high resolution cross-dispersed silicon immersion grating spectrometer. This instrument is called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating specTrometer (FIRST). FIRST can produce R = 50,000 under a 0.6 arcsec seeing and simultaneously cover 1.3-1.8 μm with a 1kx1k HgCdTe array at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope. FIRST has a 50 mm diameter collimated beam and the overall instrument is within a volume of 0.8x0.5x0.5 m3. The high dispersion, large wavelength coverage and small instrument volume become possible due to the use of a silicon immersion grating (54.7 deg blaze angle and 50 mm diameter entrance pupil) with extremely high dispersion power (3.4 times dispersion power of a conventional echelle) and coarse grooves (16.1 l/mm, coarser than the commercially available echelles). The silicon immersion grating used in a lab bench mounted Czeney-Turner spectrograph with an only 25 mm diameter collimated beam and a 100 um core fiber has produced R = 55,000 cross-dispersed solar spectra. This instrument is designed to precisely measure radial velocities of low mass stars, M dwarfs for detecting 5-10 Earth mass planets. The estimated Doppler precision is ~ 3 m/s for a J = 9 M5V dwarf in 15 min at the APO 3.5m telescope.
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Jian Ge, Daniel McDavitt, Bo Zhao, Suvrath Mahadevan, Curtis DeWitt, Sara Seager, "The first high resolution silicon immersion grating spectrograph", Proc. SPIE 6269, Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy, 62691D (28 June 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.670860; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.670860
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