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7 September 2006 HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays
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Abstract
This paper reports performance data for back-illuminated planar n-on-p HgCdTe electron-initiated avalanche photodiode (e-APD) 4×4 arrays with large-area unit cells (250×250 μm2). The arrays were fabricated from p-type HgCdTe films grown by LPE on CdZnTe substrates. The arrays were bump-mounted to fanout boards and were characterized in the back-illuminated mode. Gain increases exponentially with reverse bias voltage, and gain versus bias curves are quite uniform from element to element. The maximum gain measured is 648 at -11.7 V for a cutoff wavelength of 4.06 μm at 160 K. For the same reverse bias voltage, the gain at 160 K for elements with two different cutoff wavelengths (3.54 and 4.06 μm at 160 K) increases exponentially with increasing cutoff wavelength, in agreement with Beck's empirical model for gain versus voltage in HgCdTe e-APDs. Spot scan data show that both the V=0 response and the gain at V=-5.0 V are quite uniform spatially over the large junction area. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first spot scan data for avalanche gain ever reported for HgCdTe e-APDs. Capacitance versus voltage data are consistent with an ideal abrupt junction having a donor concentration equal to the indium counterdoping concentration in the as-grown LPE film. Calculations predict that bandwidths of 500 MHz should be readily achievable in this vertical collection geometry, and that bandwidths as high as 3 GHz may be possible with careful placement of the junction relative to the compositionally interdiffused region between the HgCdTe LPE film and the CdZnTe substrate.
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M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams "HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays", Proc. SPIE 6294, Infrared and Photoelectronic Imagers and Detector Devices II, 629403 (7 September 2006); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.692872
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