7 September 2006 Design of CMOS-APS smart imagers with mixed signal processing and analysis of their transfer characteristics
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CMOS imagers based on Active Pixel Sensors (APS) are very important among others because of their possible technical innovations leading to ultra-low power image acquisition or efficient on-chip image preprocessing. Implementation of the image processing tasks (focal plane preprocessing and subsequent image processing) can be done effectively only with the consideration of known transfer characteristics of the imager itself. Geometrical Point Spread Function (PSF) depends on the certain geometric shape of active area in the particular design of CMOS APS. In this paper, the concept of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) analysis is generalized to be applicable to the sampled structures of CMOS APS. Recalling theoretical results, we have analytically derived the detector MTF in the closed form for some special active area shapes. The paper also deals with the method based on pseudorandom image pattern with uniform power spectral density (PSD). This method allows to evaluate (in contrast to other methods) spatially invariant MTF including sampling MTF. It is generally known that a signal acquired by image sensor contains different types of noises. The superposition of these noises produces noise with a Gaussian distribution. The denoising method based on Bayesian estimator for implementation into the smart imager is presented.
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Karel Fliegel, Karel Fliegel, Jan Švihlík, Jan Švihlík, Martin Řeřábek, Martin Řeřábek, "Design of CMOS-APS smart imagers with mixed signal processing and analysis of their transfer characteristics", Proc. SPIE 6295, Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays VIII, 62950R (7 September 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.680401; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.680401

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