China is in the fragile climate area and is one of the most serious countries that suffered serious natural disaster in the world. This text had analyzing the climate conditions of China for the three-year difficult period of 1959-1961 scientifically, and told us about the number of the disaster (20, 29, 26 times) that occurred in the main natural areas by analyzing meteorological factors in 1951-1961, and the result is serious. The disasters of these years are mainly drought and typhoon, other natural disasters such as flood, hail are mainly in some areas in China. On the basis of analyze the three years' meteorological materials from the whole country (670 observation stations at national level and national basis, 4/24 times a day) year by year, and do the comparative analysis according to a common way (considered the average value of climate conditions in 1961-1990 as the standard value), analyze the impact of the natural disasters on national economy objectively with specific and accurate materials at that time, and give us suggestions on how to organize the deference of climate emergency system, etc. According to analysis, during 1959 - 1961, China's climate characteristic was lack of precipitation, especially in 1960, the space and time for the precipitation was not fair. As a whole, the weather and climate conditions are very disadvantageous to China's agricultural production during those years, especially 1960. According to loss caused by the disasters, the year 1960 was much more serious than 1959 and 1961.