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1 September 2006 Signal processing algorithms for staring single pixel hyperspectral sensors
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Remote sensing of chemical warfare agents (CWA) with stand-off hyperspectral sensors has a wide range of civilian and military applications. These sensors exploit the spectral changes in the ambient photon flux produced thermal emission or absorption after passage through a region containing the CWA cloud. In this work we focus on (a) staring single-pixel sensors that sample their field of view at regular intervals of time to produce a time series of spectra and (b) scanning single or multiple pixel sensors that sample their FOV as they scan. The main objective of signal processing algorithms is to determine if and when a CWA enters the FOV of the sensor. We shall first develop and evaluate algorithms for staring sensors following two different approaches. First, we will assume that no threat information is available and we design an adaptive anomaly detection algorithm to detect a statistically-significant change in the observed spectrum. The algorithm processes the observed spectra sequentially-in-time, estimates adaptively the background, and checks whether the next spectrum differs significantly from the background based on the Mahalanobis distance or the distance from the background subspace. In the second approach, we will assume that we know the spectral signature of the CWA and develop sequential-in-time adaptive matched filter detectors. In both cases, we assume that the sensor starts its operation before the release of the CWA; otherwise, staring at a nearby CWA-free area is required for background estimation. Experimental evaluation and comparison of the proposed algorithms is accomplished using data from a long-wave infrared (LWIR) Fourier transform spectrometer.
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Dimitris Manolakis, Michael Rossacci, Erin O'Donnell, and Francis M. D'Amico "Signal processing algorithms for staring single pixel hyperspectral sensors", Proc. SPIE 6302, Imaging Spectrometry XI, 630210 (1 September 2006);

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