Plastic-Bonded Explosives (PBXs) are a newer generation of explosive compositions developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Understanding the micromechanical behavior of these materials is critical. The size of the crystal particles and porosity within the PBX influences their shock sensitivity. Current methods to characterize the prominent structural characteristics include manual examination by scientists and attempts to use commercially available image processing packages. Both methods are time consuming and tedious. LANL personnel, recognizing this as a manually intensive process, have worked with the Kansas City Plant / Kirtland Operations to develop a system which utilizes image processing and pattern recognition techniques to characterize PBX material. System hardware consists of a CCD camera, zoom lens, two-dimensional, motorized stage, and coaxial, cross-polarized light. System integration of this hardware with the custom software is at the core of the machine vision system. Fundamental processing steps involve capturing images from the PBX specimen, and extraction of void, crystal, and binder regions. For crystal extraction, a Quadtree decomposition segmentation technique is employed. Benefits of this system include: (1) reduction of the overall characterization time; (2) a process which is quantifiable and repeatable; (3) utilization of personnel for intelligent review rather than manual processing; and (4) significantly enhanced characterization accuracy.