The domain inversion and electrochromism in congruent RuO2:LiNbO3 crystals are investigated at room temperature, and the relations between them are proposed. During electric poling process, the electrochromism accompanies the ferroelectric domain inversion simultaneously, and is localized to the same region with domain inversion. As domain inversion, the electrochromism is completely reversible when the domain is inverted from the reverse direction. The properties, coincidence and localization, between domain inversion and electrochromism are proved solidly by the digital holographic interferometry, the real-time measurement of optical transmittance change and poling current, and the micrographic analysis after being etched in hydrofluoric acid. The influences of annealing conditions on electrochromism are also discussed. We provide the reasonable assumptions and analyses that the charge redistribution within the crystal caused by domain inversion is the source for electrochemically oxidation and reduction of Ru ion, and the intervalence electron transference between Ru4+ and Ru3+ plays a key role in the spectrum shift within different spectral range by the change of the photon absorption.