11 September 2006 Complete three dimensional gap photonic crystals in the near infrared and visible wavelengths for sensing applications
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We describe various three dimensional photonic crystals fabricated from two methods - step-and-repeat projection lithography and multi level electron beam direct write - with bandgap in the optical frequency for potential sensor application. The tungsten woodpile lattice fabricated with step-and-repeat photolithography exhibits a thermal emission peak centered at ~ 2μm wavelength with less than 30% peak emission for wavelengths > 4 μm. The tungsten photonic crystal has also been investigated for application as a damage sensor in structures under mechanical stress. Using a multilevel electron beam direct write, we have fabricated prototype woodpile lattices of nano crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gold and titanium oxide. The 4 layer silicon woodpile PC exhibits a stop band centered at 1.5 μm as measured by micro reflectance and transmission spectroscopy. We have also introduced line and point defects in the 5th layer of a 9 layer amorphous silicon lattice, in order to explore them as sensor structures. We also fabricated a 4 layer Au woodpile lattice which shows broad high reflectivity at longer wavelengths with a sharp roll off near 1.5 μm.
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G. Subramania, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, Y. J. Lee, J. C. Verley, J. C. Verley, J. G. Fleming, J. G. Fleming, I. El-Kady, I. El-Kady, T. S. Luk, T. S. Luk, P. G. Clem, P. G. Clem, I. Brener, I. Brener, } "Complete three dimensional gap photonic crystals in the near infrared and visible wavelengths for sensing applications", Proc. SPIE 6322, Tuning the Optic Response of Photonic Bandgap Structures III, 632204 (11 September 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.682490; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.682490

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