30 August 2006 Measuring electrical and mechanical properties of red blood cells with a double optical tweezers
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Abstract
The fluid lipid bilayer viscoelastic membrane of red blood cells (RBC) contains antigen glycolproteins and proteins which can interact with antibodies to cause cell agglutination. This is the basis of most of the immunohematologic tests in blood banks and the identification of the antibodies against the erythrocyte antigens is of fundamental importance for transfusional routines. The negative charges of the RBCs creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. The first counterions cloud strongly binded moving together with the RBC is called the compact layer. This report proposes the use of a double optical tweezers for a new procedure for measuring: (1) the apparent membrane viscosity, (2) the cell adhesion, (3) the zeta potential and (4) the compact layer's size of the charges formed around the cell in the electrolytic solution. To measure the membrane viscosity we trapped silica beads strongly attached to agglutinated RBCs and measured the force to slide one RBC over the other as a function of the relative velocity. The RBC adhesion was measured by slowly displacing two RBCs apart until the disagglutination happens. The compact layer's size was measured using the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied voltage and the zeta potential was obtained by measuring the terminal velocity after releasing the RBC from the optical trap at the last applied voltage. We believe that the methodology here proposed can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.
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Adriana Fontes, Heloise P. Fernandes, Maria L. Barjas-Castro, André A. de Thomaz, Liliana de Ysasa Pozzo, Luiz C. Barbosa, Carlos L. Cesar, "Measuring electrical and mechanical properties of red blood cells with a double optical tweezers", Proc. SPIE 6326, Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation III, 63260N (30 August 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.680900; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.680900
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