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3 October 2006 Index modulation type waveguides written by laser direct writing technology
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Proceedings Volume 6351, Passive Components and Fiber-based Devices III; 635117 (2006)
Event: Asia-Pacific Optical Communications, 2006, Gwangju, South Korea
In this paper, we describe the cost-effective and simplified fabrication of an index modulation type buried waveguide using laser direct writing. Our studies have a potential of manufacturing waveguides on an uneven surface and a large area because there is no need for photo-mask, etching and development processes. We used organic-inorganic hybrid materials (HYBRIMER) for the fabrication of the waveguides, which have a high transparency from a visible region to an infrared region. We exposed the core layer (HYBRIMER) to a focused laser beam after a one-step spin coating process on a buffer layer. The silicon oxide was used as a buffer layer. The refractive index of the HYBRIMER film is increased by exposure from a laser beam. Therefore, the refractive index of the exposed region is higher than that of the unexposed region, which forms the index modulation type waveguide without an etching process. The fabricated waveguide channels were baked at 120°C during 3hrs for stabilization of the organic and inorganic networks. The laser direct writing apparatus was used to produce the pattern of waveguide channels. This system consists of a He-Cd laser radiating 325nm beam, high-resolution computer-controlled translation stages and a video camera that images the sample onto a monitor. The pattern of the waveguide channel was written using various writing speeds to optimize the writing condition. The core section of optimized waveguides was a rectangular shape and the core dimension was 7μm wide and 8μm high. The refractive index is increased from 1.495 to 1.5 after exposure. The difference of the refractive index between the core and cladding was approximately 0.33%. The insertion loss of the waveguides was measured by cut-back method using a single-mode fiber as an input tip, a multimode fiber (50 μm GI) as an output tip, and a 1310nm wavelength laser light source. The insertion loss shows a linear relationship with the length of the waveguide. The propagation loss of the buried waveguide was approximately 0.3dB/cm at a wavelength of 1310nm.
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Woo-Jin Lee, In-Kui Cho, Sang-Pil Han, Woo-Soo Kim, Byeong-Soo Bae, and Seoung-Ho Ahn "Index modulation type waveguides written by laser direct writing technology", Proc. SPIE 6351, Passive Components and Fiber-based Devices III, 635117 (3 October 2006);

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