9 October 2006 Radar propagation in coastal environments: Vampira results
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The performance of sensors operating in coastal environments is severely influenced by the actual atmospheric conditions and the sea surface. Propagation models are in existence, which cope with the varying environment and allow a performance prediction for sensors in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Model calculations give evidence for a complementary performance of sensors operating in the IR region and at radar frequencies ranging from X- to W-band. To validate existing radar propagation models like TERPEM and to compare IR with mm-wave propagation over sea under various atmospherically conditions, joint experiments with IR- and radar sensors were conducted over transmission ranges well beyond the horizon. For the measurements a naval vessel was moving on outbound and inbound courses ranging from the sensor site over the horizon, carrying corner reflectors acting as point targets at different heights above sea. This allowed a thorough investigation of duct propagation at different heights above the sea surface. The measurements were accompanied by a detailed environmental characterization of the sea surface and the atmosphere. The paper describes the experimental approach and gives representative results for measurement and simulation. The implications on performance especially for a multispectral (IR/mmW) approach are discussed.
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Helmut Essen, Helmut Essen, Hans-Hellmuth Fuchs, Hans-Hellmuth Fuchs, Anke Pagels, Anke Pagels, } "Radar propagation in coastal environments: Vampira results", Proc. SPIE 6364, Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems IX, 636408 (9 October 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.693498; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.693498

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