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2 October 2006 Lane identification and path planning for autonomous mobile robots
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This work has been performed in conjunction with the University of Detroit Mercy's (UDM) ECE Department autonomous vehicle entry in the 2006 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition ( The IGVC challenges engineering students to design autonomous vehicles and compete in a variety of unmanned mobility competitions. The course to be traversed in the competition consists of a lane demarcated by painted lines on grass with the possibility of one of the two lines being deliberately left out over segments of the course. The course also consists of other challenging artifacts such as sandpits, ramps, potholes, and colored tarps that alter the color composition of scenes, and obstacles set up using orange and white construction barrels. This paper describes a composite lane edge detection approach that uses three algorithms to implement noise filters enabling increased removal of noise prior to the application of image thresholding. The first algorithm uses a row-adaptive statistical filter to establish an intensity floor followed by a global threshold based on a reverse cumulative intensity histogram and a priori knowledge about lane thickness and separation. The second method first improves the contrast of the image by implementing an arithmetic combination of the blue plane (RGB format) and a modified saturation plane (HSI format). A global threshold is then applied based on the mean of the intensity image and a user-defined offset. The third method applies the horizontal component of the Sobel mask to a modified gray scale of the image, followed by a thresholding method similar to the one used in the second method. The Hough transform is applied to each of the resulting binary images to select the most probable line candidates. Finally, a heuristics-based confidence interval is determined, and the results sent on to a separate fuzzy polar-based navigation algorithm, which fuses the image data with that produced by a laser scanner (for obstacle detection).
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Robert T. McKeon, Mark Paulik, and Mohan Krishnan "Lane identification and path planning for autonomous mobile robots", Proc. SPIE 6384, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XXIV: Algorithms, Techniques, and Active Vision, 63840S (2 October 2006);

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