30 November 2006 Diurnal variability of precipitation from TRMM measurements
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This investigation focuses on developing a better understanding of the assorted mechanisms controlling the global distribution of diurnal rainfall variability. The horizontal distributions of precipitation's diurnal cycle, based on eight years of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) measurements involving three TRMM standard algorithms, are analyzed in detail at various spatiotemporal scales. Results demonstrate the prominence of the late-evening to early-morning precipitation maxima over oceans and the mid- to late-afternoon maxima over continents, but also reveal a widespread distribution of secondary maxima occurring over both oceans and continents, maxima which generally mirror their counterpart regime's behavior. That is, many ocean regions exhibit clear-cut secondary afternoon precipitation maxima while many continental areas exhibit just as evident secondary morning maxima. Notably, this investigation represents the first comprehensive study of these secondary maxima and their widespread nature when analyzed using a global precipitation dataset. The characteristics of the secondary maxima are thoroughly mapped and described on a global grid. In addition, a Fourier harmonic decomposition scheme is used to examine detailed amplitude and phase properties of the primary and secondary maxima -- as well as tertiary and quartern modes. Accordingly, the advantages, ambiguities, and pitfalls resulting from using harmonic analysis are also examined.
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Song Yang, Eric A. Smith, Kwo-Sen Kuo, "Diurnal variability of precipitation from TRMM measurements", Proc. SPIE 6404, Remote Sensing and Modeling of the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Interactions, 64040I (30 November 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.696275; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.696275

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