15 December 2006 Monitoring fire and smoke emissions with the hazard mapping system
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Abstract
The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) was developed in 2001 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite and Data Information Service (NESDIS) as an interactive tool to identify fires and the smoke emissions they produce over North America in an operational environment. The system utilizes 2 geostationary and 5 polar orbiting environmental satellites. Automated fire detection algorithms are employed for each of the sensors. Analysts apply quality control procedures for the automated fire detections by eliminating those that are deemed to be false and adding hotspots that the algorithms have not detected via a thorough examination of the satellite imagery. Areas of smoke are outlined by the analyst using animated visible channel imagery. A quantitative assessment of the smoke concentration is not performed at this time. However, integration of automated aerosol and smoke products into the HMS, such as the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) and the MODIS aerosol product in early 2006 and the aerosol product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in late 2006 are expected to aid in providing smoke concentrations and identifying areas of smoke. HMS analysts also denote fires that are producing smoke emissions detected in satellite imagery as well as the start and end times of the emissions. These fire locations are used as input to the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. HYSPLIT utilizes a dynamic emissions rate for these fires as specified by the Blue Skies framework.
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Mark Ruminski, Mark Ruminski, Shobha Kondragunta, Shobha Kondragunta, } "Monitoring fire and smoke emissions with the hazard mapping system", Proc. SPIE 6412, Disaster Forewarning Diagnostic Methods and Management, 64120B (15 December 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.694183; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.694183
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