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23 March 2007 Increased brain edema following 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic in normal and tumor bearing rats
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Abstract
Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resection indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy, such as PDT, could be of benefit. PDT causes damage to both tumor cells as well as cerebral blood vessels leading to degradation of the blood brain barrier with subsequent increase of brain edema. The increase in brain edema following ALA-PDT was evaluated in terms of animal survival, histopatological changes in normal brain and tumor tissue and MRI scanning. The effect of steroid treatment, to reduce post-treatment PDT induced edema, was also examined. Methods:Tumors were established in the brains of inbred BD-IX and Fisher rats. At various times following tumor induction the animals were injected with ALA ip. and four hours later light treatment at escalating fluences and fluence rates were given. Nontumor bearing control animals were also exposed to ALA-PDT in a similar manner to evaluate damage to normal brain and degree of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Results: Despite a very low level of PpIX production in normal brain, with a 200:1 tumor to normal tissue selectivity ratio measured at a distance of 2 mm from the tumor border, many animals succumbed shortly after treatment. A total radiant energy of 54 J to non-tumor bearing animals resulted in 50% mortality within 5 days of treatment. Treatment of tumor bearing animals with moderate fluence levels produced similar brain edema compared to higher fluence levels. ALA PDT in nontumor bearing animals produced edema that was light dose dependent. PDT appeared to open the BBB for a period of 24-48 hrs after which it was restored. The addition of post operative steroid treatment reduced the incident of post treatment morbidity and mortality. Conclusions: T2 and contrast enhanced T1 MRI scanning proved to be a highly effective and non-evasive modality in following the development of the edema reaction and the degree and time course of BBB dysfunction thus allowing the use of fewer animals.
© (2007) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Henry Hirschberg M.D., Even Angell-Petersen, Signe Spetalen, Marlon Mathews M.D., and Steen J. Madsen "Increased brain edema following 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic in normal and tumor bearing rats", Proc. SPIE 6424, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics III, 64242B (23 March 2007); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.705439
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