6 February 2007 Optical detection of breast tumors: a comparison of diagnostic performance of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy
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Abstract
We report the results of a comparative evaluation of the diagnostic capabilities of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopic approaches in differentiating the various types of breast tumors from normal breast tissues. Optical spectra (n=293) were acquired ex-vivo from a total of 75 breast tissue samples belonging to six distinct histopathologic categories: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in-situ, fibroadenoma, other benign tumors, and normal breast tissue. Autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectra were measured from the same locations of a given tissue sample. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm capable of direct multiclass classification was developed to analyze the diagnostic content of the optical spectra measured from the same set of breast tissue sites with these different techniques. The algorithm uses the theory of nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature (MRDF) for feature extraction, and the theory of Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression (SMLR) for classification. The results of discrimination analyses reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is superior to that of all others in classifying the breast tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be ~96%, 86%, 94%, 98%, 85%, and 100% for invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in-situ, fibroadenoma, benign tumors and normal breast tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-out cross validation, with the overall accuracy being ~97%.
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Shovan K. Majumder, Matthew D. Keller, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, "Optical detection of breast tumors: a comparison of diagnostic performance of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy", Proc. SPIE 6430, Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems V, 64300C (6 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.714638; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.714638
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