Cells, scaffold and culture environment are the three essential elements in engineering tissue constructs. Among these
elements, the scaffold plays a critical role in converting cells into tissue since it provides a template and space for cells to
grow and produce the desired matrix. Scaffolds are usually fabricated into three-dimensional blocks from biodegradable
polymers with different internal architectures, for instance they are with fibrous or porous structures. The mechanical
properties and nutrient diffusion ability of scaffolds are highly dependent on their internal structure. The biodegradable
feature of scaffolds leads to a dramatic change in their microstructure during in vitro culture or after implantation. In this
study, we explore optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a potential tool to characterize architecture of scaffolds
including porosity, pore distribution and interconnectivity. This instrument is a fibre based time domain OCT equipped
with a 1300 nm superluminescent diode, with a bandwidth of 52 nm and a free space resolution of 16x16x14 μm. Two
model scaffold systems have been investigated. One was porous poly(lactide) scaffold fabricated by solvent-evaporation
and salt leaching technique with dual poregens. Another was fibrous chitosan scaffold produced by wet spinning.
Variations of scaffolds architecture, in term of porosity and interconnectivity, with different fabrication conditions could
be quantified with the help of a commercial software (Volocity, Improvision). This study demonstrated that OCT can be
used as a tool to guide scaffold fabrication and optimise their internal structure. Moreover, it can be used as on-line
monitoring for scaffold degradation in various culture conditions.