13 February 2007 Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal activity and water fluxes
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We demonstrated the direct and noninvasive imaging of functional neurons,1 as well as auricular heart muscle electrical activity2 by Ionic Contrast Terahertz (ICT) near-field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative measurements of ionic concentrations in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments and opens the way to direct noninvasive imaging of neurons during electrical, toxin, or thermal stresses. Furthermore, neuronal activity results from both a precise control of transient variations in ionic conductances and a much less studied water exchange between the extracellular matrix and the intraaxonal compartment. The developed ICT technique associated with a full three-dimensional simulation of the axon-aperture near-field system allows a precise measurement of the axon geometry and therefore the direct visualization of neuron swelling induced by temperature change or neurotoxin poisoning. This technique should then provide grounds for the development of advanced functional neuroimaging methods based on diffusion anisotropy of water molecules.
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Jean-Baptiste Masson, Jean-Baptiste Masson, Martin-Pierre Sauviat, Martin-Pierre Sauviat, Jean-Louis Martin, Jean-Louis Martin, Guilhem Gallot, Guilhem Gallot, } "Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal activity and water fluxes", Proc. SPIE 6441, Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues V, 644102 (13 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.698309; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.698309

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