14 February 2007 Mie scattering model for dual-axes confocal architecture
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Tissue scattering has a significant effect on the image resolution and light collection efficiency in confocal microscopy. The dual-axes (DA) confocal architecture has many advantages including high axial resolution with low numerical aperture lenses and long working distance for use in vivo as a microendoscope. In addition, less scattered light along the illumination path may be collected and introduced as noise. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo tissue scattering simulations to compare the dual-axes and conventional single-axis (SA) configurations. Simulation results show that the axial response for the dual axes configuration varies with pinhole size and optical thickness of scattering media in a way that differs from the single axis architecture. The DA configuration is able to filter out efficiently multiply-scattered photons and out-of-focus light, thus allowing imaging with greater tissue penetration depths to provide vertical crosssectional images, which has significant implications for in vivo imaging.
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Larry K. Wong, Larry K. Wong, Michael J Mandella, Michael J Mandella, Paul Holcomb, Paul Holcomb, Gordon S. Kino, Gordon S. Kino, Thomas D. Wang, Thomas D. Wang, } "Mie scattering model for dual-axes confocal architecture", Proc. SPIE 6443, Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XIV, 64430R (14 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.699437; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.699437

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